Human Cloning Pros and Cons: Should People Interfere with Nature?
In 2013, the Japanese scientists used a new technique to produce 26 generations of cloned mice from a single mouse. When we hear that, this may sound strange. Not only did they do that, they also have created 598 mice successfully from the original one which are the genetic duplicates. This innovation in the field of cloning shows that the clone of mine and yours would roam around the streets in the future as with the same identity of us. Cloning could help the world to the larger extent if these clones are meant to be used for the positive purposes. But, as Newton’s third law suggests,“For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”. We could expect this to happen in the science of cloning too. There can be the equal possibility of both the positive and negative outcomes from cloning as like the augmented usage of mobile phones.
When the announcement of dolly came, the first created clone from the adult sheep, it has almost created the headlines in all of the papers and news media on 23 Feb 1997. After a couple of days, the Edinburgh scientists affirmed that frozen cells are used to produce Dolly. This means that animals could be cloned even after their death. The British scientists responsible for Dolly confessed to a legislative body on 6 March 1997 that human cloning could be possible in two to three years. This was followed by an extraordinary announcement which was given by Advanced Cell Technology, Massachusetts on 12 November 1998, they inserted a nucleus into a cow’s egg from a human Dr. Jose Cibelli. Surprisingly, the human genes were activated and the egg started to divide. But, they stopped this process at the 32 cell stage, on the way to becoming Dr. Cibelli’s clone. These two events shows that the human cloning can be successful if it is done in a full-fledged manner.
The process of cloning is actually divided into two types.
Human reproductive cloning is the term used to define the process that takes place when a human clone is created. During this process, the nucleus of a fertilized organism’s egg is displaced by a nucleus of an organism’s cell.
Therapeutic cloning is slightly different in which the process of cloning the human cells can be of use for the medical research.
Some of the important positive outcomes of cloning are given below:
- Firstly, reproductive cloning can help the infertile couples or lesbian, gay community to have children by themselves who are trying to have biologically related offspring by somatic cell transfer method.
- In addition to that, multiple different diseases can be cured by displacing the damaged parts within the body with the help of the therapeutic cloning. Indeed, it immensely enhances the success of human organ transplantation technique.
- Moreover, faster recovery from traumatic injury can happen with the help of cloning. From the professional athletes who tear their anterior cruciate ligament to the person who becomes a paralyzed because of a devastating automobile accident, the recovery times of the injury could be lowered and true healing can come into action.
- Furthermore, defective genes could be removed. Genetic illnesses are not a principal killer of people today, but they can become in the near future. As human’s reproduction propagates, damage to their DNA lines can increase. This creates defective genes, but these could be eliminated with the help of cloning of the healthy human cells.
- Intellectual properties of the man can be increased by the gene mutation process. Also, physical characteristics such as eye color and hair color can be chosen according to the wish of a human.
- At last, human will have the capability to modify the life on earth. We can create the "transgenic" mix of genes from two or more diverse animals, example: mouse and rabbit or monkey and cat. If this happens, in the future several cloned humanized pigs may become the supplier of heart transplants for humans.
Some of the important negative outcomes of cloning are given below:
- Once the cloning is done, that may raise a lot of question in our mind like “Who should exactly create the clones whether the original human or the cloned one?”. It can seem to be the funny question as of now. But, when the ban on the cloning is officially detached, it is not possible to say the clones should not produce their own cloned version. Because, even though they are born from the human, the created clones can have the different way of thinking. So, it is impossible to say that the clones are not going to create their own cloned version.
- There may be a possibility of emotional risks when the reproductive cloning is done. The cloned child grows by recognizing her mother as the sister and grandmother as her mother. Agonizing emotional pressures can bubble up on a teenager who attempts to establish his/her individuality.
- We can see a lot of health risks by the mutation of the genes. The birth of an abnormal baby could be possible when it is done. When the mutation of the gene is carried out, then there can be a huge possibility of the monster birth. It can be apparently seen with the mutation experiments conducted on the animals. We cannot always predict the developmental abnormalities either by gene testing or by ultrasound scans, till the birth of the baby.
- The Doppelganger Effect can happen, if some humans are reproduced by the way of cloning, it could direct to a ceaseless increase of mistaken identity. This probably would not create a problem for the first generation of clones but it would happen to the inter-generational clones of nearly the same age. So, it could lead to new kind of identity theft in which clones pretend to be another person.
- The rise of clones would introduce an immense problem for investigators or systems dependent on biometrics. Facial recognition scans and DNA fingerprinting would become useless since all the cloned versions would have the same face and fingerprints as like the original human. In fact, this could increase the possibility of committing the crime activities because of having the same identities.
- In addition to that, we can achieve the genetic immortality if we keep on doing the cloning for generations. This cloning also helps in raising the loved one from their death if their cells are stored in the culture or in the frozen condition and it claims to have a different opinion from people around the world. Since in this scenario, the human recreates the people from their death and so it paves the way for the contradiction with the supreme power of the world. Many religious groups don’t want to accept the cloning only because of this reason and Doppelganger Effect.
- We can create the “transgenic” genes to combine human and monkey to make a half and half-breed. The process combining two balls of growing cells in the pre-embryo stage will pave the way for that. Human and rabbit cells have already been combined to form a humabbit in late 2000. There were only a few human embryo cells were added to the rabbit’s embryo. So, the humabbit was born exactly like a rabbit but with a mixture of human cells throughout its whole body. Will humonkeys be recognized as a normal human before the law if they are able to speak? As monkeys and humans share most of their genes, will theologians decide that humonkeys can receive empathy like the rest of us and if that so, how many human genes does an animal need to have in order to gain the human rights?
We need to find the answer to all the above questions as soon as possible since we are moving more faster in the science and technology field than any other fields of the world.
All scientific inventions right from electricity to modern day smartphones once seemed as the nightmare to all the people around the world. But, today we have started to live with them by considering the positive outcomes of those technologies.The current hysteria directed at human cloning is an early replica of the backlash to so-called "test tube babies" in the period of 1975 to 1985. People worried about the world populated by unconventional lab-grown children. Today, that fear is far gone. Approximately 500,000 babies are born each year around the world via in vitro fertilization (IVF). We can fully expect the same process of normalization to happen with human cloning too. Who knows. Change is the only thing which never changes in the world.
Since we now have the ability to alter the life on earth with the help of cloning, we had to better think a lot about the kind of world which we want. It is no good simply reacting to today’s headlines with shock and disgust. We must always find the solution to the problems which are going to affect the entire world. Many of the issues in science field are rigorous and gene technology has tremendous power for good if appropriately used.
The decision is always ours. We cannot ignore gene technology, nor should we denounce all of it, although there should be a complete ban on human cloning. The vital thing is proper regulation should be needed on this worldwide. We need to have a UN summit on biotechnology followed by the international agreement signed by the world leaders for cloning. Either we curfew the gene technology today, or gene technology will modify us by tomorrow if we are not ready to take the proper steps. It is all about drawing the line for cloning science at the proper place. But, the question is where do we need to draw the line to see the future world generations to use the cloning on the positive path? Let us decide that immediately to use the cloning science with good meaning.
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